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SinterInteraction Class Reference

Computes normal forces in case of a linear plastic visco-elastic interaction. More...

#include <SinterInteraction.h>

+ Inheritance diagram for SinterInteraction:

Public Types

typedef SinterNormalSpecies SpeciesType
 An alias for the corresponding species. More...
 

Public Member Functions

 SinterInteraction (BaseInteractable *P, BaseInteractable *I, unsigned timeStamp)
 Constructor. More...
 
 SinterInteraction (const SinterInteraction &p)
 Copy constructor. More...
 
 SinterInteraction ()
 
 ~SinterInteraction () override
 Destructor. More...
 
void computeNormalForce ()
 Creates a copy of an object of this class. (Deep copy) More...
 
void read (std::istream &is) override
 Interaction read function, which accepts an std::istream as input. More...
 
void write (std::ostream &os) const override
 Interaction write function, which accepts an std::ostream as input. More...
 
virtual std::string getBaseName () const
 Returns the name of the interaction. More...
 
Mdouble getElasticEnergy () const override
 Computes and returns the amount of elastic energy stored in the spring. More...
 
const SinterNormalSpeciesgetSpecies () const
 
Mdouble getPlasticOverlap () const
 
void setPlasticOverlap (Mdouble plasticOverlap)
 
Mdouble getUnloadingStiffness () const
 
unsigned getNumberOfFieldsVTK () const override
 
std::string getTypeVTK (unsigned i) const override
 
std::string getNameVTK (unsigned i) const override
 
std::vector< MdoublegetFieldVTK (unsigned i) const override
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from BaseInteraction
 BaseInteraction (BaseInteractable *P, BaseInteractable *I, unsigned timeStamp)
 A constructor takes the BaseInteractable objects which are interacting (come into contact) and time the interaction starts. More...
 
 BaseInteraction ()
 
 BaseInteraction (const BaseInteraction &p)
 Copy constructor. More...
 
 ~BaseInteraction () override
 The destructor. More...
 
virtual void actionsOnErase ()
 If an interaction needs to do something before it gets erased, add it here. E.g. Liquid bridges rupture at the end of their lifetime, and the liquid bridge volume has to be redistributed. The reason this action is not done in the destructor is that this action should not be taken when erasing ghost interactions. More...
 
virtual void computeForce ()
 Virtual function that contains the force law between the two objects interacting. More...
 
void writeToFStat (std::ostream &os, Mdouble time) const
 Writes forces data to the FStat file. More...
 
std::string getName () const override
 Virtual function which allows interactions to be named. More...
 
void setDistance (Mdouble distance)
 Sets the interaction distance between the two interacting objects. More...
 
void setNormal (Vec3D normal)
 Sets the normal vector between the two interacting objects. More...
 
void setOverlap (Mdouble overlap)
 Set the overlap between the two interacting object. More...
 
void setContactPoint (Vec3D contactPoint)
 Set the location of the contact point between the two interacting objects. More...
 
void setTimeStamp (unsigned timeStamp)
 Updates the time step of the interacting. Note, time steps used to find completed interactions. More...
 
void setSpecies (const BaseSpecies *species)
 Set the Species of the interaction; note this can either be a Species or MixedSpecies. More...
 
void setP (BaseInteractable *P)
 Sets the first object involved in the interaction (normally a particle). More...
 
void setI (BaseInteractable *I)
 Sets the second object involved in the interaction (often particle or wall). More...
 
void importP (BaseInteractable *P)
 Sets the first object involved in the interaction (normally a particle). More...
 
void importI (BaseInteractable *I)
 Sets the second object involved in the interaction (often particle or wall). More...
 
Vec3D getIP () const
 
Vec3D getIC () const
 
Vec3D getCP () const
 
void setLagrangeMultiplier (Mdouble multiplier)
 
Mdouble getLagrangeMultiplier ()
 
void setHandler (InteractionHandler *handler)
 Sets the pointer to the interaction hander which is storing this interaction. More...
 
InteractionHandlergetHandler () const
 Gets a point to the interaction handlers to which this interaction belongs. More...
 
const Vec3DgetForce () const
 Gets the current force (vector) between the two interacting objects. More...
 
const Vec3DgetTorque () const
 Gets the current torque (vector) between the two interacting objects. More...
 
const Vec3DgetNormal () const
 Gets the normal vector between the two interacting objects. More...
 
const Vec3DgetContactPoint () const
 Gets constant reference to contact point (vector). More...
 
Mdouble getOverlap () const
 Returns a Mdouble with the current overlap between the two interacting objects. More...
 
Mdouble getContactRadius () const
 Returns a Mdouble with the current contact between the two interacting objects. More...
 
void removeFromHandler ()
 Removes this interaction from its interaction hander. More...
 
void copySwitchPointer (const BaseInteractable *original, BaseInteractable *ghost) const
 This copies the interactions of the original particle and replaces the original with the ghost copy. More...
 
void gatherContactStatistics ()
 
BaseInteractablegetP ()
 Returns a pointer to first object involved in the interaction (normally a particle). More...
 
BaseInteractablegetI ()
 Returns a pointer to the second object involved in the interaction (often a wall or a particle). More...
 
const BaseInteractablegetP () const
 Returns a constant pointer to the first object involved in the interaction. More...
 
const BaseInteractablegetI () const
 Returns a constant pointer to the second object involved in the interaction. More...
 
Mdouble getTimeStamp () const
 Returns an Mdouble which is the time stamp of the interaction. More...
 
virtual void integrate (Mdouble timeStep)
 integrates variables of the interaction which need to be integrate e.g. the tangential overlap. More...
 
virtual Mdouble getTangentialOverlap () const
 get the length of the current tangential overlap More...
 
Mdouble getDistance () const
 Returns an Mdouble which is the norm (length) of distance vector. More...
 
const Vec3DgetRelativeVelocity () const
 Returns a constant reference to a vector of relative velocity. More...
 
Mdouble getNormalRelativeVelocity () const
 Returns a double which is the norm (length) of the relative velocity vector. More...
 
Mdouble getAbsoluteNormalForce () const
 Returns the absolute value of the norm (length) of the Normal force vector. More...
 
virtual BaseInteractioncopy () const =0
 Makes a copy of the interaction and returns a pointer to the copy. More...
 
void setFStatData (std::fstream &fstat, BaseParticle *P, BaseWall *I)
 
void setFStatData (std::fstream &fstat, BaseParticle *P, BaseParticle *I)
 
unsigned int getMultiContactIdentifier () const
 
void setMultiContactIdentifier (unsigned int multiContactIdentifier_)
 
virtual void rotateHistory (Matrix3D &rotationMatrix)
 When periodic particles are used, some interactions need certain history properties rotated (e.g. tangential springs). This is the function for that. More...
 
virtual void actionsAfterTimeStep ()
 
void setForce (Vec3D force)
 set total force (this is used by the normal force, tangential forces are added use addForce) More...
 
const BaseSpeciesgetBaseSpecies () const
 Return a constant point to BaseSpecies of the interaction. More...
 
virtual void createMPIType ()
 
virtual void * createMPIInteractionDataArray (unsigned int numberOfInteractions) const
 
virtual void deleteMPIInteractionDataArray (void *dataArray)
 
virtual void getMPIInteraction (void *historyDataArray, unsigned int index) const
 copies the history interactions into the data array More...
 
virtual void getInteractionDetails (void *interactionDataArray, unsigned int index, unsigned int &identificationP, unsigned int &identificationI, bool &isWallInteraction, unsigned &timeStamp)
 
virtual void setMPIInteraction (void *interactionDataArray, unsigned int index, bool resetPointers)
 
void setBasicMPIInteractionValues (int P, int I, unsigned timeStamp, Vec3D force, Vec3D torque, bool isWallInteraction, bool resetPointers)
 
void setIdentificationP (unsigned int identification)
 
void setIdentificationI (int identification)
 
void setWallInteraction (bool flag)
 
unsigned int getIdentificationP ()
 
int getIdentificationI ()
 
bool isWallInteraction ()
 
virtual bool isBonded () const
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from BaseObject
 BaseObject ()=default
 Default constructor. More...
 
 BaseObject (const BaseObject &p)=default
 Copy constructor, copies all the objects BaseObject contains. More...
 
virtual ~BaseObject ()=default
 virtual destructor More...
 
virtual void moveInHandler (unsigned int index)
 Except that it is virtual, it does the same thing as setIndex() does. More...
 
void setIndex (unsigned int index)
 Allows one to assign an index to an object in the handler/container. More...
 
void setId (unsigned long id)
 Assigns a unique identifier to each object in the handler (container) which remains constant even after the object is deleted from the container/handler. More...
 
unsigned int getIndex () const
 Returns the index of the object in the handler. More...
 
unsigned int getId () const
 Returns the unique identifier of any particular object. More...
 
void setGroupId (unsigned groupId)
 
unsigned getGroupId () const
 

Private Attributes

Mdouble plasticOverlap_
 

Additional Inherited Members

- Protected Member Functions inherited from BaseInteraction
virtual const Vec3D getTangentialForce () const
 
Mdouble getEffectiveRadius () const
 Returns a Mdouble to the effective radius of the interaction. (Not corrected for the overlap) More...
 
Mdouble getEffectiveMass () const
 Returns a Mdouble to the effective radius of the interaction. (Not corrected for the overlap) More...
 
void addForce (Vec3D force)
 add an force increment to the total force. More...
 
void addTorque (Vec3D torque)
 
void setTorque (Vec3D torque)
 set the total force (this is used by the normal force, tangential torques are added use addTorque) More...
 
void setRelativeVelocity (Vec3D relativeVelocity)
 set the relative velocity of the current of the interactions. More...
 
void setNormalRelativeVelocity (Mdouble normalRelativeVelocit)
 set the normal component of the relative velocity. More...
 
void setAbsoluteNormalForce (Mdouble absoluteNormalForce)
 the absolute values of the norm (length) of the normal force More...
 
virtual Mdouble getElasticEnergyAtEquilibrium (Mdouble adhesiveForce) const
 
virtual void reverseHistory ()
 When periodic particles some interaction need certain history properties reversing. This is the function for that. More...
 
void writeInteraction (std::ostream &os, bool created) const
 Writes information about a interaction to the interaction file. More...
 

Detailed Description

Computes normal forces in case of a linear plastic visco-elastic interaction.

Definition at line 39 of file SinterInteraction.h.

Member Typedef Documentation

An alias for the corresponding species.

Definition at line 45 of file SinterInteraction.h.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

SinterInteraction::SinterInteraction ( BaseInteractable P,
BaseInteractable I,
unsigned  timeStamp 
)

Constructor.

Parameters
[in]P
[in]I
[in]timeStamp

Definition at line 39 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_.

40  : BaseInteraction(P, I, timeStamp)
41 {
42  plasticOverlap_ = 0;
43 #ifdef DEBUG_CONSTRUCTOR
44  std::cout<<"SinterInteraction::SinterInteraction() finished"<<std::endl;
45 #endif
46 }
SinterInteraction::SinterInteraction ( const SinterInteraction p)

Copy constructor.

Parameters
[in]p

Definition at line 51 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_.

52  : BaseInteraction(p)
53 {
55 #ifdef DEBUG_CONSTRUCTOR
56  std::cout<<"SinterInteraction::SinterInteraction(const SinterInteraction &p finished"<<std::endl;
57 #endif
58 }
SinterInteraction::SinterInteraction ( )
default
Todo:
: MX add to MPI
SinterInteraction::~SinterInteraction ( )
override

Destructor.

Definition at line 66 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

67 {
68 #ifdef DEBUG_DESTRUCTOR
69  std::cout<<"SinterInteraction::~SinterInteraction() finished"<<std::endl;
70 #endif
71 }

Member Function Documentation

void SinterInteraction::computeNormalForce ( )

Creates a copy of an object of this class. (Deep copy)

Computes the normal forces due to linear plastic visco elastic interaction.

Todo:
adhesive force only, or add normalForce?

Definition at line 105 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References CONSTANT_RATE, Vec3D::dot(), SinterNormalSpecies::getCohesionStiffness(), SinterNormalSpecies::getComplianceZero(), SinterNormalSpecies::getConstantC1(), BaseInteraction::getContactPoint(), SinterNormalSpecies::getDissipation(), BaseHandler< T >::getDPMBase(), BaseInteraction::getEffectiveRadius(), BaseInteraction::getHandler(), BaseInteraction::getI(), SinterNormalSpecies::getLoadingStiffness(), BaseInteraction::getNormal(), BaseInteraction::getNormalRelativeVelocity(), BaseInteraction::getOverlap(), BaseInteraction::getP(), SinterNormalSpecies::getPenetrationDepthMax(), BaseInteraction::getRelativeVelocity(), SinterNormalSpecies::getSeparationDis(), SinterNormalSpecies::getSinterAdhesion(), SinterNormalSpecies::getSinterRate(), SinterNormalSpecies::getSinterType(), getSpecies(), SinterNormalSpecies::getSurfTension(), ThermalParticle::getTemperature(), SinterNormalSpecies::getTemperatureDependentSinterRate(), DPMBase::getTimeStep(), SinterNormalSpecies::getUnloadingStiffnessMax(), logger, PARHAMI_MCKEEPING, constants::pi, plasticOverlap_, REGIME_SINTERING, BaseInteraction::setAbsoluteNormalForce(), BaseInteraction::setForce(), BaseInteraction::setNormalRelativeVelocity(), BaseInteraction::setRelativeVelocity(), BaseInteraction::setTorque(), mathsFunc::square(), and TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_FRENKEL.

106 {
107  // Compute the relative velocity vector of particle P w.r.t. I
109  getP()->getVelocityAtContact(getContactPoint()) - getI()->getVelocityAtContact(getContactPoint()));
110  // Compute the projection of vrel onto the normal (can be negative)
112 
113  if (getOverlap() > 0) //if contact forces
114  {
115  const SinterNormalSpecies* species = getSpecies();
116 
117  // calculate the effective diameter, equal to the radius for two equal-sized particles
118  const Mdouble effectiveDiameter = 2.0 * getEffectiveRadius();
119 
120  // [1] Calculate the overlap above which the max. unloading stiffness
121  //becomes active (the 'fluid branch'). In this interaction, it is the same than delta*
122 
123  const Mdouble d_fluid_0 = (species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax()
124  / (species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax() - species->getLoadingStiffness()))
125  * species->getPenetrationDepthMax() * effectiveDiameter;
126 
127  //const Mdouble deltaStar = species->getPenetrationDepthMax() * effectiveDiameter;
128 
129  //[2] Compute the rate d(k2/k1)/d(delta0). To obtain this parameter, the linear relationship
130  //between unloading stiffness and maximum overlap is used.
131  const Mdouble dk = (species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax() / species->getLoadingStiffness() - 1.0) / d_fluid_0;
132 
133  //increase max overlap if necessary
134  //Here, two relationships are used. The linear relationship between unloadingstiffness max and
135  //the equilibrium overlap based on the unloading stiffness.
136  //k2 = k1*(1+dk*d), k1*d = k2*(d-d0)
137  //k1*d = k1*(1 + dk*d)*(d-d0)
138  //d = d - d0 +dk*d^2 -dk*d*d0
139  //dk*d^2 = dk *d * d0 + d0
140  //dk*d^2 = (dk*d + 1)*d0
141  //dkd^2/(dk*d + 1) = d0
142  //d0 = d/(1 + 1/(dk*d))
143 
144  //[3] Compute the equilibirum overlap is:
145  const Mdouble d0 = getOverlap()/(1.0 + 1.0/(dk*getOverlap()));
146 
147  const Mdouble minPlasticOverlap = std::min(d0,d_fluid_0);
148 
149  //[4] Determine the plastic overlap
150  plasticOverlap_ = std::max(minPlasticOverlap, plasticOverlap_);
151 
152  //[5] Compute the unloading Stiffness \hat{k2}.
153  const Mdouble unloadingStiffness = species->getLoadingStiffness() * (1.0 + dk * plasticOverlap_);
154 
155  //[6] Compute the elastic force
156  Mdouble normalForce = unloadingStiffness * (getOverlap() - plasticOverlap_);
157 
158  //[7] Add the adhesive force (distinct from sintering)
159  Mdouble nonSinterAdhesiveForce = -species->getCohesionStiffness() * getOverlap();
160 
161  if (normalForce < nonSinterAdhesiveForce)
162  {
163  plasticOverlap_ = (1.0 + species->getCohesionStiffness() / unloadingStiffness) * getOverlap();
164  normalForce = nonSinterAdhesiveForce;
165  }
166 
167  //[[8] Add dissipative force (distinct from sintering)
168  normalForce -= species->getDissipation() * getNormalRelativeVelocity();
169 
170  //[9] Sintering effect:
171  Mdouble adhesiveForce = species->getSinterAdhesion() * effectiveDiameter;
172 
173  //[10] Now set the interaction force equal to this normal force (friction and adhesive forces will be added later)
174  setForce(getNormal() * ((normalForce - adhesiveForce)));
175  setTorque(Vec3D(0.0, 0.0, 0.0));
176  //used for tangential force calculations; don't add adhesive force components
177  setAbsoluteNormalForce(std::abs(normalForce));
178 
179  //[11] Approaches - Increase plastic overlap due to sintering
180  const Mdouble baseNum = 9*constants::pi*species->getComplianceZero()*species->getSurfTension()/(effectiveDiameter);
181  const Mdouble a0_R = std::pow(baseNum,1.0/3.0);
182  const Mdouble realOverlap = std::sqrt(getOverlap()/effectiveDiameter);
183 
184  DPMBase* dpmBase = getHandler()->getDPMBase();
185  Mdouble rateOverlap;
186  // sinter adhesion force fa=sinterAdhesion_*radius in sinter rate:
188  {
189  rateOverlap = normalForce * species->getSinterRate() /
190  (0.375 * species->getSinterAdhesion() * mathsFunc::square(
191  getOverlap() / effectiveDiameter));
192  if (species->getSinterRate() == 0) rateOverlap = 0;
193  }
194  else if (species->getSinterType() == SINTERTYPE::CONSTANT_RATE)
195  {
196  rateOverlap = 2.0 * normalForce * species->getSinterRate() / species->getSinterAdhesion();
197  if (species->getSinterRate() == 0) rateOverlap = 0;
198  }
200  {
201  ThermalParticle* tp = dynamic_cast<ThermalParticle*>(getP());
202  ThermalParticle* ti = dynamic_cast<ThermalParticle*>(getI());
203  logger.assert(tp && ti,
204  "warning contact partners have to be ThermalParticle's if this sinter species is used");
205  double temperature =
206  2.0 * tp->getTemperature() * ti->getTemperature() / (tp->getTemperature() + ti->getTemperature());
207  rateOverlap = 2.0 * normalForce * species->getTemperatureDependentSinterRate(temperature) /
208  species->getSinterAdhesion();
209  }
210  else if (species->getSinterType() == SINTERTYPE::REGIME_SINTERING)
211  {
212  if (realOverlap < a0_R) {
213  //Here, Sintering rate has unit of [1/s]
214  rateOverlap = normalForce / species->getSinterAdhesion();
215  //rateOverlap = effectiveDiameter* species->getSinterRate();
216 
217  }else {
218  const Mdouble val0 = std::pow((63 * pow(constants::pi, 3.0) / 16.0), 1.0 / 7.0);
219  const Mdouble val1 = pow((species->getSeparationDis()*10 / effectiveDiameter), 2.0 / 7.0);
220  const Mdouble val2 = (2.0 / 7.0) * (2.0 * species->getConstantC1() * species->getSurfTension() /
221  (effectiveDiameter));
222  const Mdouble val3 = 1.0 / (std::pow(getOverlap(), 5.0 / 2.0));
223  const Mdouble val4 = std::pow(effectiveDiameter, 7.0 / 2.0);
224 
225  rateOverlap = (std::pow(val0 * val1, 7.0) * val2 * val3 * val4) * normalForce / species->getSinterAdhesion();
226 
227  const Mdouble aVisc_R = std::pow(63.0 * std::pow(constants::pi, 3.0), 1.0 / 5.0) *
228  std::pow((1.0 / 8.0) * (species->getSeparationDis()/33.0) / (effectiveDiameter), 2.0 / 5.0);
229 
230  if (realOverlap > aVisc_R) {
231  rateOverlap = 2.0*normalForce * species->getSinterRate() / species->getSinterAdhesion();
232 // logger(INFO," RealOver % aVisc_R %",realOverlap,aVisc_R);
233  }
234  }
235  }
236  else
237  {
238  rateOverlap = 0;
239  //missing: add the sintering model 'modified Frenkel' of the Pokula paper
240  }
241  plasticOverlap_ = std::max(0.0, std::min(d_fluid_0, plasticOverlap_ + rateOverlap * dpmBase->getTimeStep()));
242 
243  /*//change particle radius by dr
244  Mdouble dr;
245  BaseParticle* PParticle = dynamic_cast<BaseParticle*>(getP());
246  BaseParticle* IParticle = dynamic_cast<BaseParticle*>(getI());
247  if (dpmBase->getSystemDimensions()==2) {
248  //2D: increase the radius of each particle such that the particle area
249  //increases by the same amount that the contact area decreases
250  //Particle circumference C = 2 pi r increased by dr => dA = 2 pi r dr
251  //Contact line L = 2*sqrt(2*r*o) indented by do/2 => dA = sqrt(2*r*o) do
252  //Thus, dr = sqrt(0.5*o/r)/pi do.
253  dr = sqrt(0.5*plasticOverlap_/effectiveDiameter)/3.14 *doverlap;
254  } else {
255  //3D: increase the radius of each sphere such that the particle volume
256  //increases by the same amount that the contact volume decreases
257  //Particle surface area S = 4 pi r^2 increased by dr => dA = 4 pi r^2 dr
258  //Contact area L = pi 2*r*o indented by do/2 => dA = pi r o do
259  //Thus, dr = 0.25*o/r do
260  dr = 0.25*plasticOverlap_/effectiveDiameter *doverlap;
261  }
262  if (PParticle==nullptr) { //if P is a wall
263  IParticle->setRadius(IParticle->getRadius()+dr);//should be twice that amount
264  } else if (IParticle==nullptr) { //if I is a wall
265  PParticle->setRadius(PParticle->getRadius()+dr);
266  } else { //if both P and I are particles
267  PParticle->setRadius(PParticle->getRadius()+dr);
268  IParticle->setRadius(IParticle->getRadius()+dr);
269  }*/
270  }
271  else
272  {
274  setForce(Vec3D(0.0, 0.0, 0.0));
275  setTorque(Vec3D(0.0, 0.0, 0.0));
276  }
277 }
Mdouble getEffectiveRadius() const
Returns a Mdouble to the effective radius of the interaction. (Not corrected for the overlap) ...
The DPMBase header includes quite a few header files, defining all the handlers, which are essential...
Definition: DPMBase.h:72
Logger< MERCURY_LOGLEVEL > logger("MercuryKernel")
InteractionHandler * getHandler() const
Gets a point to the interaction handlers to which this interaction belongs.
double Mdouble
Definition: GeneralDefine.h:34
const Vec3D & getRelativeVelocity() const
Returns a constant reference to a vector of relative velocity.
Mdouble getSinterAdhesion() const
Accesses sinterAdhesion_.
void setRelativeVelocity(Vec3D relativeVelocity)
set the relative velocity of the current of the interactions.
Mdouble getTemperature() const
void setForce(Vec3D force)
set total force (this is used by the normal force, tangential forces are added use addForce) ...
const Vec3D & getContactPoint() const
Gets constant reference to contact point (vector).
BaseInteractable * getI()
Returns a pointer to the second object involved in the interaction (often a wall or a particle)...
static Mdouble dot(const Vec3D &a, const Vec3D &b)
Calculates the dot product of two Vec3D: .
Definition: Vector.cc:76
void setNormalRelativeVelocity(Mdouble normalRelativeVelocit)
set the normal component of the relative velocity.
const Vec3D & getNormal() const
Gets the normal vector between the two interacting objects.
SINTERTYPE getSinterType() const
BaseInteractable * getP()
Returns a pointer to first object involved in the interaction (normally a particle).
Mdouble getNormalRelativeVelocity() const
Returns a double which is the norm (length) of the relative velocity vector.
const Mdouble pi
Definition: ExtendedMath.h:45
Mdouble getComplianceZero() const
Mdouble getLoadingStiffness() const
Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Mdouble getCohesionStiffness() const
Returns the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
void setTorque(Vec3D torque)
set the total force (this is used by the normal force, tangential torques are added use addTorque) ...
Mdouble getSeparationDis() const
Mdouble getOverlap() const
Returns a Mdouble with the current overlap between the two interacting objects.
void setAbsoluteNormalForce(Mdouble absoluteNormalForce)
the absolute values of the norm (length) of the normal force
Mdouble getPenetrationDepthMax() const
Returns the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
SinterNormalSpecies contains the parameters used to describe a plastic-cohesive normal force (Stefan ...
std::function< double(double temperature)> getTemperatureDependentSinterRate() const
Mdouble getUnloadingStiffnessMax() const
Returns the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force...
Mdouble getDissipation() const
Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed.
Definition: Vector.h:49
Mdouble getSurfTension() const
T square(const T val)
squares a number
Definition: ExtendedMath.h:104
DPMBase * getDPMBase()
Gets the problem that is solved using this handler.
Definition: BaseHandler.h:725
Mdouble getTimeStep() const
Returns the simulation time step.
Definition: DPMBase.cc:1211
Mdouble getConstantC1() const
const SinterNormalSpecies * getSpecies() const
Mdouble getSinterRate() const
Accesses sinterRate_.
std::string SinterInteraction::getBaseName ( ) const
virtual

Returns the name of the interaction.

Returns
std::string

Definition at line 97 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

98 {
99  return "Sinter";
100 }
Mdouble SinterInteraction::getElasticEnergy ( ) const
overridevirtual

Computes and returns the amount of elastic energy stored in the spring.

Returns
Mdouble
Todo:
TW this is not correct; we should count the return energy

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 282 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References SinterNormalSpecies::getLoadingStiffness(), BaseInteraction::getOverlap(), getSpecies(), and mathsFunc::square().

283 {
284  if (getOverlap() > 0)
286  else
287  return 0.0;
289 }
Mdouble getLoadingStiffness() const
Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Mdouble getOverlap() const
Returns a Mdouble with the current overlap between the two interacting objects.
T square(const T val)
squares a number
Definition: ExtendedMath.h:104
const SinterNormalSpecies * getSpecies() const
std::vector< Mdouble > SinterInteraction::getFieldVTK ( unsigned  i) const
overridevirtual

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 350 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References BaseInteraction::getEffectiveRadius(), and plasticOverlap_.

351 {
352  if (i == 0)
353  return std::vector<Mdouble>(1, plasticOverlap_);
354  else
355  return std::vector<Mdouble>(1, sqrt(2.0 * getEffectiveRadius() * plasticOverlap_));
356 }
Mdouble getEffectiveRadius() const
Returns a Mdouble to the effective radius of the interaction. (Not corrected for the overlap) ...
std::string SinterInteraction::getNameVTK ( unsigned  i) const
overridevirtual

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 342 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

343 {
344  if (i == 0)
345  return "plasticOverlap";
346  else
347  return "neckRadius";
348 }
unsigned SinterInteraction::getNumberOfFieldsVTK ( ) const
overridevirtual

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 332 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

333 {
334  return 2;
335 }
Mdouble SinterInteraction::getPlasticOverlap ( ) const
Returns
Mdouble plasticOverlap_

Definition at line 303 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_.

Referenced by getUnloadingStiffness().

304 {
305  return plasticOverlap_;
306 }
const SinterNormalSpecies * SinterInteraction::getSpecies ( ) const
Returns
const SinterNormalSpecies*

Definition at line 294 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References BaseInteraction::getBaseSpecies(), and BaseSpecies::getNormalForce().

Referenced by computeNormalForce(), getElasticEnergy(), and getUnloadingStiffness().

295 {
296  return static_cast<const SinterNormalSpecies*>(getBaseSpecies()->getNormalForce());
297 ;
298 }
BaseNormalForce * getNormalForce() const
Definition: BaseSpecies.h:148
const BaseSpecies * getBaseSpecies() const
Return a constant point to BaseSpecies of the interaction.
SinterNormalSpecies contains the parameters used to describe a plastic-cohesive normal force (Stefan ...
std::string SinterInteraction::getTypeVTK ( unsigned  i) const
overridevirtual

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 337 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

338 {
339  return "Float32";
340 }
Mdouble SinterInteraction::getUnloadingStiffness ( ) const
Returns
Mdouble

Definition at line 319 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References BaseInteraction::getEffectiveRadius(), SinterNormalSpecies::getLoadingStiffness(), BaseInteraction::getOverlap(), SinterNormalSpecies::getPenetrationDepthMax(), getPlasticOverlap(), getSpecies(), and SinterNormalSpecies::getUnloadingStiffnessMax().

320 {
321  const SinterNormalSpecies* species = getSpecies();
322  Mdouble effectiveDiameter = 2.0 * getEffectiveRadius();
323  Mdouble deltaMaxFluid = species->getPenetrationDepthMax() * effectiveDiameter /
324  (1.0 - species->getLoadingStiffness() / species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax());
325  if (getOverlap() > deltaMaxFluid)
326  return species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax();
327  else
328  return species->getLoadingStiffness() + (species->getUnloadingStiffnessMax() - species->getLoadingStiffness()) *
329  getPlasticOverlap() / deltaMaxFluid;
330 }
Mdouble getEffectiveRadius() const
Returns a Mdouble to the effective radius of the interaction. (Not corrected for the overlap) ...
double Mdouble
Definition: GeneralDefine.h:34
Mdouble getLoadingStiffness() const
Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Mdouble getOverlap() const
Returns a Mdouble with the current overlap between the two interacting objects.
Mdouble getPenetrationDepthMax() const
Returns the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
SinterNormalSpecies contains the parameters used to describe a plastic-cohesive normal force (Stefan ...
Mdouble getPlasticOverlap() const
Mdouble getUnloadingStiffnessMax() const
Returns the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force...
const SinterNormalSpecies * getSpecies() const
void SinterInteraction::read ( std::istream &  is)
overridevirtual

Interaction read function, which accepts an std::istream as input.

Calls the read function of BaseInteraction().

Parameters
[in,out]is

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 87 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_, and BaseInteraction::read().

88 {
90  std::string dummy;
91  is >> dummy >> plasticOverlap_;
92 }
void read(std::istream &is) override
Interaction read function, which accepts an std::istream as input.
void SinterInteraction::setPlasticOverlap ( Mdouble  plasticOverlap)
Parameters
[in]maxOverlap

Definition at line 311 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_.

312 {
313  plasticOverlap_ = plasticOverlap;
314 }
void SinterInteraction::write ( std::ostream &  os) const
overridevirtual

Interaction write function, which accepts an std::ostream as input.

Calls the write function of BaseInteraction().

Parameters
[in,out]os

Reimplemented from BaseInteraction.

Definition at line 77 of file SinterInteraction.cc.

References plasticOverlap_, and BaseInteraction::write().

78 {
80  os << " plasticOverlap " << plasticOverlap_;
81 }
void write(std::ostream &os) const override
Interaction print function, which accepts an std::ostream as input.

Member Data Documentation

Mdouble SinterInteraction::plasticOverlap_
private

The documentation for this class was generated from the following files: