revision: v0.14
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies Class Reference

HertzianSinterNormalSpecies contains the parameters used to describe a plastic-cohesive normal force (Stefan Ludings plastic-cohesive force model). More...

#include <HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h>

+ Inheritance diagram for HertzianSinterNormalSpecies:

Public Types

typedef HertzianSinterInteraction InteractionType
 The correct Interaction type for this FrictionForceSpecies. More...
 

Public Member Functions

 HertzianSinterNormalSpecies ()
 The default constructor. More...
 
 HertzianSinterNormalSpecies (const HertzianSinterNormalSpecies &p)
 The default copy constructor. More...
 
 ~HertzianSinterNormalSpecies ()
 The default destructor. More...
 
void read (std::istream &is)
 Reads the species properties from an input stream. More...
 
void write (std::ostream &os) const
 Writes the species properties to an output stream. More...
 
std::string getBaseName () const
 Used in Species::getName to obtain a unique name for each Species. More...
 
void mix (HertzianSinterNormalSpecies *S, HertzianSinterNormalSpecies *T)
 creates default values for mixed species More...
 
void setPlasticParameters (Mdouble loadingModulus, Mdouble unloadingModulusMax, Mdouble cohesionModulus, Mdouble penetrationDepthMax)
 Sets all parameters of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force at once. More...
 
Mdouble getLoadingModulus () const
 Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
Mdouble getUnloadingModulusMax () const
 Returns the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
Mdouble getCohesionModulus () const
 Returns the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
Mdouble getPenetrationDepthMax () const
 Returns the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
void setLoadingModulus (Mdouble loadingModulus)
 Sets the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
void setUnloadingModulusMax (Mdouble unloadingModulusMax)
 Sets the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
void setCohesionModulus (Mdouble cohesionModulus)
 Sets the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
void setPenetrationDepthMax (Mdouble penetrationDepthMax)
 Sets the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
void setDissipation (Mdouble dissipation)
 Sets the linear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
Mdouble getDissipation () const
 Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed. More...
 
void setSinterRate (Mdouble sinterRate)
 Sets the linear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force. More...
 
Mdouble getSinterRate () const
 Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed. More...
 
Mdouble computeTimeStep (Mdouble mass)
 Returns the optimal time step to resolve a collision of two particles of a given mass. More...
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from BaseNormalForce
 BaseNormalForce ()
 
 BaseNormalForce (const BaseNormalForce &p)
 
bool getConstantRestitution () const
 
void setConstantRestitution (bool constantRestitution)
 
- Public Member Functions inherited from BaseForce
BaseSpeciesgetBaseSpecies () const
 
void setBaseSpecies (BaseSpecies *baseSpecies)
 

Private Attributes

Mdouble loadingModulus_
 (normal) spring constant (k_1) More...
 
Mdouble unloadingModulusMax_
 the maximum elastic constant (k_2^max) for plastic deformations More...
 
Mdouble cohesionModulus_
 the adhesive spring constant (k^c) for plastic deformations More...
 
Mdouble penetrationDepthMax_
 the depth (relative to the normalized radius) at which k_2^max is used (phi_f) More...
 
Mdouble dissipation_
 linear dissipation coefficient More...
 
Mdouble sinterRate_
 

Detailed Description

HertzianSinterNormalSpecies contains the parameters used to describe a plastic-cohesive normal force (Stefan Ludings plastic-cohesive force model).

See SinterNormalInteraction::computeForce for a description of the force law.

Member Typedef Documentation

◆ InteractionType

The correct Interaction type for this FrictionForceSpecies.

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

◆ HertzianSinterNormalSpecies() [1/2]

HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::HertzianSinterNormalSpecies ( )

The default constructor.

38  : BaseNormalForce()
39 {
40  loadingModulus_ = 0.0;
42  cohesionModulus_ = 0.0;
44  dissipation_ = 0.0;
45  sinterRate_ = 0.0;
46 #ifdef DEBUG_CONSTRUCTOR
47  std::cout<<"HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::HertzianSinterNormalSpecies() finished"<<std::endl;
48 #endif
49 }

References cohesionModulus_, dissipation_, loadingModulus_, penetrationDepthMax_, sinterRate_, and unloadingModulusMax_.

◆ HertzianSinterNormalSpecies() [2/2]

HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::HertzianSinterNormalSpecies ( const HertzianSinterNormalSpecies p)

The default copy constructor.

Parameters
[in]thespecies that is copied
55  : BaseNormalForce(p)
56 {
63 #ifdef DEBUG_CONSTRUCTOR
64  std::cout<<"HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(const HertzianSinterNormalSpecies &p) finished"<<std::endl;
65 #endif
66 }

References cohesionModulus_, dissipation_, loadingModulus_, penetrationDepthMax_, sinterRate_, and unloadingModulusMax_.

◆ ~HertzianSinterNormalSpecies()

HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::~HertzianSinterNormalSpecies ( )

The default destructor.

69 {
70 #ifdef DEBUG_DESTRUCTOR
71  std::cout<<"HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::~HertzianSinterNormalSpecies() finished"<<std::endl;
72 #endif
73 }

Member Function Documentation

◆ computeTimeStep()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::computeTimeStep ( Mdouble  mass)

Returns the optimal time step to resolve a collision of two particles of a given mass.

Calculates collision time for stiffest spring constant, divides by 50

Parameters
[in]theoptimal time step is computed to resolve a collision of two particles of this mass.
214 {
215 // if (stiffnessMax / (.5 * mass) < mathsFunc::square(dissipation_ /mass)) {
216 // std::cerr << "Dissipation too high; max. allowed " << sqrt(2.0 * stiffnessMax * mass) << std::endl;
217 // return 0.02 * constants::pi / std::sqrt(2.0*stiffnessMax / mass);
218 // } else {
219  logger(WARN, "Warning: Dissipation is not taken into account when computing the time step");
220  ParticleSpecies* p = dynamic_cast<ParticleSpecies*>(getBaseSpecies());
221  logger.assert_debug(p,"Empty particle handler");
222  Mdouble radius = cbrt(mass * 3. / (4. * constants::pi * p->getDensity()));
223  return 0.02 * constants::pi / std::sqrt(2.0 * getUnloadingModulusMax() * getPenetrationDepthMax() * radius / mass);
224 }

References BaseForce::getBaseSpecies(), ParticleSpecies::getDensity(), getPenetrationDepthMax(), getUnloadingModulusMax(), logger, constants::pi, and WARN.

◆ getBaseName()

std::string HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getBaseName ( ) const

Used in Species::getName to obtain a unique name for each Species.

Returns
a string containing the name of the species (minus the word "Species")
106 {
107  return "HertzianSinter";
108 }

◆ getCohesionModulus()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getCohesionModulus ( ) const

Returns the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Returns
the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
165 {
166  return cohesionModulus_;
167 }

References cohesionModulus_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), and mix().

◆ getDissipation()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getDissipation ( ) const

Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed.

Returns
the linear dissipation coefficient
262 {
263  return dissipation_;
264 }

References dissipation_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), and mix().

◆ getLoadingModulus()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getLoadingModulus ( ) const

Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Returns
the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
149 {
150  return loadingModulus_;
151 }

References loadingModulus_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), HertzianSinterInteraction::getElasticEnergy(), HertzianSinterInteraction::getUnloadingModulus(), and mix().

◆ getPenetrationDepthMax()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getPenetrationDepthMax ( ) const

Returns the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Returns
the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
173 {
174  return penetrationDepthMax_;
175 }

References penetrationDepthMax_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), computeTimeStep(), HertzianSinterInteraction::getUnloadingModulus(), and mix().

◆ getSinterRate()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getSinterRate ( ) const

Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed.

Returns
the linear dissipation coefficient
270 {
271  return sinterRate_;
272 }

References sinterRate_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), and mix().

◆ getUnloadingModulusMax()

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getUnloadingModulusMax ( ) const

Returns the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Returns
the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
157 {
158  return unloadingModulusMax_;
159 }

References unloadingModulusMax_.

Referenced by HertzianSinterInteraction::computeSinterForce(), computeTimeStep(), HertzianSinterInteraction::getUnloadingModulus(), and mix().

◆ mix()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::mix ( HertzianSinterNormalSpecies S,
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies T 
)

creates default values for mixed species

For all parameters we assume that the harmonic mean of the parameters of the original two species is a sensible default.

Parameters
[in]S,Tthe two species whose properties are mixed to create the new species

References BaseSpecies::average(), cohesionModulus_, dissipation_, getCohesionModulus(), getDissipation(), getLoadingModulus(), getPenetrationDepthMax(), getSinterRate(), getUnloadingModulusMax(), loadingModulus_, penetrationDepthMax_, sinterRate_, and unloadingModulusMax_.

◆ read()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::read ( std::istream &  is)

Reads the species properties from an input stream.

Parameters
[in]inputstream (typically the restart file)
92 {
93  std::string dummy;
94  is >> dummy >> loadingModulus_;
95  is >> dummy >> unloadingModulusMax_;
96  is >> dummy >> cohesionModulus_;
97  is >> dummy >> penetrationDepthMax_;
98  is >> dummy >> dissipation_;
99  is >> dummy >> sinterRate_;
100 }

References cohesionModulus_, dissipation_, loadingModulus_, penetrationDepthMax_, sinterRate_, and unloadingModulusMax_.

◆ setCohesionModulus()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setCohesionModulus ( Mdouble  cohesionModulus)

Sets the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Parameters
[in]cohesionModulusthe cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
197 {
198  cohesionModulus_ = cohesionModulus;
199 }

References cohesionModulus_.

Referenced by setPlasticParameters().

◆ setDissipation()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setDissipation ( Mdouble  dissipation)

Sets the linear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

should be non-negative

Parameters
[in]thelinear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
231 {
232  if (dissipation >= 0)
233  {
234  dissipation_ = dissipation;
235  }
236  else
237  {
238  logger(ERROR, "setDissipation(%) argument has to be non-negative", dissipation);
239  }
240 }

References dissipation_, ERROR, and logger.

◆ setLoadingModulus()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setLoadingModulus ( Mdouble  loadingModulus)

Sets the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Parameters
[in]loadingModulusthe loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
181 {
182  loadingModulus_ = loadingModulus;
183 }

References loadingModulus_.

Referenced by setPlasticParameters().

◆ setPenetrationDepthMax()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setPenetrationDepthMax ( Mdouble  penetrationDepthMax)

Sets the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Parameters
[in]penetrationDepthMaxthe maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
205 {
206  penetrationDepthMax_ = penetrationDepthMax;
207 }

References penetrationDepthMax_.

Referenced by setPlasticParameters().

◆ setPlasticParameters()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setPlasticParameters ( Mdouble  loadingModulus,
Mdouble  unloadingModulusMax,
Mdouble  cohesionModulus,
Mdouble  penetrationDepthMax 
)

Sets all parameters of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force at once.

Parameters
[in]loadingModulusthe loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
[in]unloadingModulusMaxthe maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
[in]cohesionModulusthe cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
[in]penetrationDepthMaxthe maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
133 {
134  if (loadingModulus <= 0 || unloadingModulusMax <= 1.000001 * (loadingModulus + cohesionModulus) ||
135  cohesionModulus < 0 || penetrationDepthMax < 0)
136  {
137  logger(ERROR, "Arguments of setPlasticParameters do not make sense");
138  }
139  setLoadingModulus(loadingModulus);
140  setUnloadingModulusMax(unloadingModulusMax);
141  setCohesionModulus(cohesionModulus);
142  setPenetrationDepthMax(penetrationDepthMax);
143 }

References ERROR, logger, setCohesionModulus(), setLoadingModulus(), setPenetrationDepthMax(), and setUnloadingModulusMax().

◆ setSinterRate()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setSinterRate ( Mdouble  sinterRate)

Sets the linear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

should be non-negative

Parameters
[in]thelinear dissipation coefficient of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
247 {
248  if (sinterRate >= 0)
249  {
250  sinterRate_ = sinterRate;
251  }
252  else
253  {
254  logger(ERROR, "setSinterRate(%) argument has to be non-negative", sinterRate);
255  }
256 }

References ERROR, logger, and sinterRate_.

◆ setUnloadingModulusMax()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setUnloadingModulusMax ( Mdouble  unloadingModulusMax)

Sets the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.

Parameters
[in]unloadingModulusMaxthe maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
189 {
190  unloadingModulusMax_ = unloadingModulusMax;
191 }

References unloadingModulusMax_.

Referenced by setPlasticParameters().

◆ write()

void HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::write ( std::ostream &  os) const

Writes the species properties to an output stream.

Parameters
[out]outputstream (typically the restart file)
79 {
80  os << " loadingModulus " << loadingModulus_;
81  os << " maxUnloadingModulus " << unloadingModulusMax_;
82  os << " cohesionModulus " << cohesionModulus_;
83  os << " maxPenetration " << penetrationDepthMax_;
84  os << " dissipation " << dissipation_;
85  os << " sinterRate " << sinterRate_;
86 }

References cohesionModulus_, dissipation_, loadingModulus_, penetrationDepthMax_, sinterRate_, and unloadingModulusMax_.

Member Data Documentation

◆ cohesionModulus_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::cohesionModulus_
private

the adhesive spring constant (k^c) for plastic deformations

Referenced by getCohesionModulus(), HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(), mix(), read(), setCohesionModulus(), and write().

◆ dissipation_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::dissipation_
private

linear dissipation coefficient

Referenced by getDissipation(), HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(), mix(), read(), setDissipation(), and write().

◆ loadingModulus_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::loadingModulus_
private

(normal) spring constant (k_1)

Referenced by getLoadingModulus(), HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(), mix(), read(), setLoadingModulus(), and write().

◆ penetrationDepthMax_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::penetrationDepthMax_
private

the depth (relative to the normalized radius) at which k_2^max is used (phi_f)

Referenced by getPenetrationDepthMax(), HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(), mix(), read(), setPenetrationDepthMax(), and write().

◆ sinterRate_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::sinterRate_
private

◆ unloadingModulusMax_

Mdouble HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::unloadingModulusMax_
private

the maximum elastic constant (k_2^max) for plastic deformations

Referenced by getUnloadingModulusMax(), HertzianSinterNormalSpecies(), mix(), read(), setUnloadingModulusMax(), and write().


The documentation for this class was generated from the following files:
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setCohesionModulus
void setCohesionModulus(Mdouble cohesionModulus)
Sets the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:196
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setUnloadingModulusMax
void setUnloadingModulusMax(Mdouble unloadingModulusMax)
Sets the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:188
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::dissipation_
Mdouble dissipation_
linear dissipation coefficient
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:155
constants::pi
const Mdouble pi
Definition: ExtendedMath.h:45
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getDissipation
Mdouble getDissipation() const
Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:261
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setPenetrationDepthMax
void setPenetrationDepthMax(Mdouble penetrationDepthMax)
Sets the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:204
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::penetrationDepthMax_
Mdouble penetrationDepthMax_
the depth (relative to the normalized radius) at which k_2^max is used (phi_f)
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:152
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::setLoadingModulus
void setLoadingModulus(Mdouble loadingModulus)
Sets the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:180
logger
Logger< MERCURY_LOGLEVEL > logger("MercuryKernel")
Definition of different loggers with certain modules. A user can define its own custom logger here.
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::unloadingModulusMax_
Mdouble unloadingModulusMax_
the maximum elastic constant (k_2^max) for plastic deformations
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:146
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getCohesionModulus
Mdouble getCohesionModulus() const
Returns the cohesive stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:164
ParticleSpecies
Definition: ParticleSpecies.h:37
ParticleSpecies::getDensity
Mdouble getDensity() const
Allows density_ to be accessed.
Definition: ParticleSpecies.cc:117
Mdouble
double Mdouble
Definition: GeneralDefine.h:34
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getLoadingModulus
Mdouble getLoadingModulus() const
Returns the loading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:148
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getUnloadingModulusMax
Mdouble getUnloadingModulusMax() const
Returns the maximum unloading stiffness of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:156
ERROR
LL< Log::ERROR > ERROR
Error log level.
Definition: Logger.cc:53
BaseSpecies::average
static Mdouble average(Mdouble a, Mdouble b)
Returns the harmonic mean of two variables.
Definition: BaseSpecies.cc:110
WARN
LL< Log::WARN > WARN
Warning log level.
Definition: Logger.cc:54
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getPenetrationDepthMax
Mdouble getPenetrationDepthMax() const
Returns the maximum penetration depth of the linear plastic-viscoelastic normal force.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:172
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::getSinterRate
Mdouble getSinterRate() const
Allows the normal dissipation to be accessed.
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.cc:269
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::sinterRate_
Mdouble sinterRate_
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:157
BaseNormalForce::BaseNormalForce
BaseNormalForce()
Definition: BaseNormalForce.h:34
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::loadingModulus_
Mdouble loadingModulus_
(normal) spring constant (k_1)
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:143
BaseForce::getBaseSpecies
BaseSpecies * getBaseSpecies() const
Definition: BaseForce.h:35
HertzianSinterNormalSpecies::cohesionModulus_
Mdouble cohesionModulus_
the adhesive spring constant (k^c) for plastic deformations
Definition: HertzianSinterNormalSpecies.h:149